The Concatenator

Timeline

'Where are we?' is a question often asked. To know where you are now is dependent on where you have been. It marks your place in time. So some knowledge of history can be very useful, or as the Roman philosopher Cicero said: 'Not to know what happened before you were born is to be a child forever.' Humanity has developed itself through time to a place where we are know. You could describe this situation as a simple journey from A to B, but of course there's more to it than that. So below you find a timeline with some of the most important events in the history of humanity on several subjects like art, religion, society, politics, discoveries and inventions or science in general. Some dates are open to debate because there is no consensus about them between historians.

All years below are BCE (Before the Common Era)
13.8 billion Origin of the universe, Big Bang.
4.5 billion Origin of the earth.
100.000 Homo Sapiens.
75.000 Scratched patterns in the Blombos cave in South Africa.
40.000 First figurative art, rock paintings in Ubirr, Australia.
15.000 Rock paintings in Qurta, Egypt.
14.000 Rock paintings in Lascaux, France.
12.000 First settlements and agriculture.

6.000-5.000 Development of cities in current Iraq, Egypt, India, China and Mexico. Around 5.000 first calender, stone circle in Nabta Playa. Around 4.000 golden Age in Uruk, first city in Sumer, South Mesopotamia.
4000-300 Ancient Greek civilization.
3.5000-500 Bronze Age, origin of writing, craftmanship, erection of temples for the worshipping of gods.
3300-300 Ancient Egyptian civilization.
3100 Upper and Lower Egypt are united during the reign of pharaoh Narmer.
2700 Gilgamesh king in Uruk.
2550 Construction of the pyramid at Giza.
1894 Semitic population settle in Babylon.
1000 Chalkhill drawings in United Kingdom, e.g. Uffington horse.

800-200 Axial period, monotheism in the Middle East, Confucianism and Taoism in China, Hindoeism and Buddhism in India, philosophical rationalism.
563-483 Prince Siddhartha Gautama is born, who later becomes the Buddha.
551-479 Confucius.
508 Cleisthenes introduces the democratic system in Athens.
500 Roman empire. Ends in 476 CE (west) and 1453 CE (east).
500 The Zapotec built a city near Monte Alban in the Oaxaca valley in Mexico, it will be their centre for 1000 year.
470-322 Greek philosophers: Socrates 470-399, Plato 427-347, Aristotle 384-322.
356-323 Alexander the Great.
221 Qin Shi Huangdi unites China to one empire.

All years below are CE (the Common Era)
0-33 Jesus Christ.
325 Constantine the Great, first Council of Nicaea, Christianity becomes the standard religion in the Roman Empire.
410 Sack of Rome by the Visigoths.
476 Romulus Augustus, deposition of the last Western Roman Emporer.
570-632 Mohammed.
700-1000 Vikings.

1000 Improvements in the agricultural production process, increase in crafts and economy.
1096 Pope Urbanus II initiates the first crusade.

1200 The capital of the Inca Empire, Cuzco, is founded.
1234 Printing of books with seperate metal printing letters in Korea.
1279 Mongolian Empire, largest contiguous land empire in history.

1300-1700 Renaissance.
1325 Founding of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, the place where Mexico city now is located.
1368-1644 Expansion and completion Chinese wall.

1406-1420 Completion of the forbidden city in Beijng.
1450 Johannes Gutenberg, invention of the printing press.
1453 Sack of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
1492 Christopher Columbus, discovery of America.

1500-1800 First scientific revolution.
1517 Martin Luther, publication of the 95 theses, Protestantism.
1519 Led by Hernan Cortes the Spanish conquistadors start their conquest of South America.
1543 Nicolaus Copernicus - De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres), replaces the geocentric model by Ptolemy with the heliocentric model.
1545-1563 Council of Trent, counter-reformation.

1611 Galileo Galilei discovers phases of Venus.
1650-1789 Enlightenment, Rationalism, René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.
1651 Thomas Hobbes - Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil.
1687 Isaac Newton - Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).

1748 Charles de Montesquieu - De L'Esprit des Lois (The Spirit of the Laws). Trias politica, seperation of the administrative powers into the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.
1750-1850 Industrial revolution. Invention of the steam engine (around 1770).
1755 Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes (Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men).
1768 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1772 Encyclopédie by D'Alembert and Diderot.
1776 American independence.
1776 Adam Smith - An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
1781 Immanuel Kant - Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason).
1789 French Revolution, storming of the Bastille.

1800 Romanticism.
1807 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - Die Phänomenologie des Geistes (The Phenomenology of Spirit), dialectic.
1848 Karl Heinrich Marx - The Communist Manifesto, 1867-1894 Das Kapital.
1859 Charles Darwin - On the Origin of Species, theory of evolution.

1900-... Second scientific revolution.
1913 Niels Bohr, replaces the atom model of Rutherford.
1913 Emile Durkheim, founder of modern social sciences.
1914-1918 First world war.
1916 Albert Einstein - General theory of relativity.
1922 Britsh Empire, largest empire in history.
1939-1945 Second world war.
1950-... Information Age, TV, internet, mobile communication.
1953 Discovery of DNA, double helix.
1969 Landing on the moon.
1989 Fall of the Berlin wall.

 

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